The question was asked during an online exam.
My question is taken from Embracing the Reality of Web Markup topic in section HTML Markup, Forms, Video, Audio & Other Multimedia of HTML
Easiest explanation: The aside tag contains data related to its surrounding. <output> is result of anything. The figure tag specifies self-contained content, like illustrations, diagrams, photos, code listings, etc. Additional details that someone wants to know or hide as per demand are provided by details element.